Country divided into 11 sectors and allocated colonels
Indian Border Security Force's (BSF) Bangladesh mission
K. F. Rustamji, the first Director General and founding father of the Indian Border Security Force who helped Tajuddin Ahmad and Barrister Amirul Islam seek Indira Gandhi's help, was tasked with maintaining security on the Eastern Frontier. With this in mind, Rustamji lost no time in hand-picking officers like Brigadier B. C. Pande, Colonel Rampal Singh, Colonel Megh Singh and Brigadier M. S. Chatterjee with their special commando forces at the most strategic points of the Bangladesh border. On 29 March 1971 (i.e. three days after the Pakistani killing began in Bangladesh) Rustamji verbally directed Brigadier B. C. Pande to proceed to Tripura, east of Bangladesh, for aiding the Bangladesh liberation forces. Commanding the 104 Commando Batttalion and known fondly as 'Papa Pande', Brigadier Pande was then posted at Agartala.
BSF was directed to take such measures as would not endanger the security of the border on the Eastern Frontiers while helping the liberation forces of Bangladesh to achieve their aim.
K. F. Rustamji, Director-General of Indian BSF
- B. C. Pande ()
In the afternoon of 1 April 1971 Brigadier Pande crossed over to Bangladesh and reached the dak bungalow of Teliapara Tea Garden in Madhabpur upazila, Habiganj district, Sylhet, a semi hilly area covered by tea gardens. Here he met with Bengali Lieutenant Colonel S. M. Reza and Major Shafaat Jamil and notified them that Colonel Muhammad Ataul Ghani (M. A. G.) Osmani was in Agartala while Major Ziaur Rahman was at Ramgarh (in Chittagong Division, on the Indo-Bangladesh border) after rebelling against the 8th East Pakistan Regiment.
During this meeting it was decided a second meeting would be held three days later, on 4 April 1971, to discuss how to coordinate the Bengali troops for revolts and how they could be successful in acquiring full Indian BSF assistance. Brigadier Pande left by assuring the others that he'll bring over all the other concerned officers stationed or hiding in India at the time. Immediately the next day he established contact with Bengali desert officers of EBR and EPR, as well as Colonel MAG Osmani, who arrived at Agartala from Dhaka on foot.
The Indians believed the impending Bangladesh-Pakistan war necessitated that they form a coalition of some sorts with senior Bengali officers and also form local commanders of the Indian Army to neutralise effect of attacks by the Pakistan Army. This involved protecting flanks of the Indian armed forces, guarding lines of communication, looking after potential arms dumps and prisoners of war. The war also provided the Indian government with the perfect excuse to split the old enemy into two forever.
I will never forget the discussions I had with our Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi in the Government House in Agartala at midnight about Bangladesh Operations. Having heard me patiently for about an hour , she asked me a number of questions to satisfy herself about the safety and security of our borders. In the end she asked if I need any help from Delhi. I told her that every thing we needed was being provided by Rustamji from Delhi.
Brigadier B. C. Pande
Teliapara, Habiganj, Sylhet: the first conference of Bengali officers where Bangladesh was divided into 4 military zones
By the first week of April communications amongst the revolting East Bengal battalions and the wings of EPR were being established. The first of these was the communication between 4th East Bengal Regiment (EBR) at Brahmanbaria under Major Khaled Mosharraf and 2nd EBR at Kishoreganj under Major Kazi Mohammad Shafiullah (more popularly known as K. M. Shafiullah). By 2 April 1971 both these batallions had regrouped at Teliapara Tea Garden where they received information about 8th EBR's revolt in Chittagong under Major Ziaur Rahman. The fate of 1 EBR at Jessore and 3 EBR at Saidpur were still unknown.
Soon, it became obvious a command structure was required to conduct and coordinate the operations. With this in mind and with the assistance of the Indian Army and the Border Security Force (BSF) a conference was arranged at the Teliapara Tea State.
On 4 April 1971, a meeting of 27 patriotic and defecting army officers took place at the tea state's manager's dak bungalow, which had served as a temporary headquarters for Sector 2 and 4 commanders from 1 April 1971. Amongst the attendees were senior officials and officers of the rank of majors and above such as Colonel Muhammad Ataul Ghani (M. A. G.) Osmani, Lieutenant Colonel Mohammad Abdur (M. A.) Rab, Lieutenant Colonel Salahuddin Mohammad Reja, Major Qazi Nuruzzaman, Major C. R. Dutta, Major Ziaur Rahman, Major Khaled Mosharraf, Captain Nasir, Major Nurul Islam, Major Shafat Jamil, Major Mainul Hossain Chowdhury, Major K. M. Shafiullah, Lt. Syed Ibrahim, Commandant Manik Chowdhury and others. Also present at the meeting were Abdul Matin, Indian Brigadier Shuvramaniam and MPA Maulana Asad Ali.
This conference was the first meeting of the senior army officers, serving and retired, and is considered as an important landmark in Bangladesh Liberation War.
Teliapara conference formed the nucleus of the higher organisation in our War of Liberation. Higher direction of whatever level, was provided in this conference. It gave the liberation forces an organisational concept, which was soon implemented in the form of Mukti Bahini. Formation of the government of Bangladesh in exile was to materialise hardly six days after, on 10 April at Agartala.
During the meeting the members took some very important and critical decisions. It was decided a political government would be formed by the elected representatives of the 1970 general election. This will help to legitimise the war and prevent it from being branded falsely by the Pakistani junta as a mutiny and thus giving them right to kill them. The political government could also mobilise international support and help shape world opinion in favour of the Bengalis. In addition, they could arrange material support and ammunition for war that was desperately required by the freedom fighters.
During the meeting an interim policy for the armed resistance was also formulated and Bangladesh was divided into 4 military zones or sectors to be commanded by a colonel. Major Ziaur Rahman was made operationally responsible for Chittagong-Chittagong Hill Tracts - designated as 'Sector 1' area - Major Khaled Mosharraf for Comilla-Noakhali (Sector 2), Major K. M. Shafiullah for Sylhet-Brahmanbaria (Sector 3), and Major Abu Osman Chowdhury for whole western sector (Panchagar in the north and Satkhira in the south) which was later designated as 'Sector 8'.
Later, the manager's bungalow of Teliapara tea garden was used as the office of Sector 3 (Sylhet-Brahmanbaria).
Three more sectors added
Following the formation of the Mujibnagar government on 10 April 1971, Tajuddin Ahmad announced the creation of 3 more new sectors the very next day. Rangpur (Sector 6) to be led by Wing Commander M. Khademul Bashar, Dinajpur-Rajshahi-Pabna (Sector 7) under Major Nazrul Huq, and Barisal-Patuakhali (Sector 9) under Major Mohammad Abdul (M. A.) Jalil.
On 11 April Tajuddin Ahmed, Prime Minister of the Government of Bangladesh in a radio address from All India Radio, Gauhati called upon the people of Bangladesh to mobilise their energy for the liberation struggle. In his spirited and patriotic speech, he eulogised the Liberation Army, which was being formed around the nucleus of the professional soldiers from the EBR, the EPR and the police. While surveying the activities of the Liberation Army with additional information he further expanded the command structure, dividing the country into seven major regions and appointed the region commanders.
Major Qamrul Hassan Bhuiyan
Second and last officer's conference held in Kolkata, presided by Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmad, divides country into final 11 sectors
Serious initiative for organising the rapidly growing Bangladesh liberation army was taken at the second and last senior officers' conference held in Mujibnagar headquarters at 8 Theatre Road, Kolkata, between 11-17 July 1971. It was during this meeting that the Bangladesh Sena Bahini (Bangladesh Defence Forces or Bangladesh Army) was officially created. Colonel MAG Osmani, a retired Pakistani Army officer from Bangladesh, was made its Commander-in-Chief, with the status of Cabinet Minister, and had his base in India. Lieutenant Colonel Mohammad Abdur Rab was appointed as Chief of Staff (COS) with his base in Bangladesh, Group Captain A. K. Khandker as Deputy Chief of Staff (DCOS) with his office in Kolkata, and Major A. R. Chowdhury as Assistant Chief of Staff (ACOS).
In addition to the seven sectors, four more sectors were created to bring the final total to 11. Habiganj zilla in Sylhet (Sector 4) to be led by Major Chitta Rajan (C. R.) Dutta, Durgapur-Danki area in Sylhet (Sector 5) under Major Mir Shawkat Ali, Bay of Bengal (Sector 10) under naval commandos, and finally Mymensingh-Tangail (Sector 11) under Major Ziaur Rahman who had by then left Sector 1 (Chittagong-Chittagong Hill Tracts) under the responsibility of Major Rafiqul Islam.
Each of the eleven sectors were assigned a number starting from Chittagong and moving anti-clockwise (Sector 11 was created later). further divided into sub-sectors and commanded by other officers. During the nine months war it was common practise to replace one sector or sub-sector commander by another whenever the situation necessitated such action.
These [i.e. Teliapara and Kolkata] were the two strategy conferences during the war to formally provide higher directions.
Major Qamrul Hassan Bhuiyan
|Sector no.||Area (Headquarter)||No. of freedom fighters||Commanded by Major (duration of term)||Sub-sectors (commanded by)|
|1||Chittagong-Chittagong Hill Tracts
(includes 2,000 regular troops)
Contained 137 guerrilla groups
(10 Apr 1971 – 25 Jun 1971)
(28 Jun 1971 – 14 Feb 1972)
(Melaghar, 20 miles south of Agartala, India)
(10 Apr 1971 – 22 Sept 1971)
A. T. M. Haider
(22 Sept 1971 – 18 Dec 1972)
Contained approx 19 guerrilla groups
|K. M. Shafiullah
(10 Apr 1971 – 21 Jul 1971)
A. N. M. Nuruzzaman
(23 Jul 1971 – 14 Feb 1972)
|4||Sylhet: Habiganj areas
(initially Karimganj, later Masimpur)
|Chitta Rajan Datta
(10 Apr 1971 – 14 Feb 1972)
|5||Sylhet: Durgapur-Danki areas
|Mir Shawkat Ali
(10 Apr 1971 – 14 Feb 1972)
(Burimari near Patgram)
Guerrillas established 35 bases all over Rangpur and Dinajpur
|M. Khademul Bashar
(Apr 1971 – 14 Feb 1972)
(Tarangapur near Balurghat)
(10 Apr 1971 – 27 Sept 1971)
(28 Sept 1971 – 14 Feb 1972)
|Abu Osman Chowdhury
(10 Apr 1971 – 17 Jul 1971)
M. A. Manzoor
(14 Aug 1971 – 14 Feb 1972)
(Taki near Bashirhat)
|20,000||M. A. Jalil
(17 Jul 17 – 24 Dec 1971)
M. A. Manzoor
|10||Bay of Bengal||-||Bangladesh Navy under Colonel Osmani & Indian commander MN Sumanta (3-16 Dec 1971)||-|
Kader Bahini contained 16,000 guerrilla fighters
(27 Jun 1971 – 10 Oct 1971)
(10 Oct 1971 – 2 Nov 1971)
M. Hamidullah Khan
(2 Nov 1971 – 14 Feb 1972)
Note: sector numbers were assigned in July 1971 when Bangladesh was divided into 11 sectors.
During the Kolkata meeting four important resolutions were taken in consideration of strategic aspects of the war, existing problems and future course of resistance:
Sector Commanders of Bangladesh
- Muhammad Ataul Ghani (M. A. G.) Osmani (1918 - 1984) Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of Bangladesh Forces during the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. Popularly referred to as 'Bongabir' (Brave Bengali) General Osmani. Bangladesh Forces (military, air and navy) formed under his command. Fought in WWII in Burma for British Indian Army (1939-1947). Shifted to Pakistani Army after 1947 partition and became a Colonel. Fought internally with superiors for rights of Bengali soliders. Joined Awami League and was elected MNA in the 1970 Pakistan general elections from Sylhet. Retired in April 1972 as the first full General (four star) of Bangladesh Forces, which was replaced by Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy and Bangladesh Air Force and three separate chiefs were selected. Thus 'General MAG Osmani' is the only historical name whose name appears first in the honour boards of the three services as C-in-C between 12 April 1971 to 7 April 1972. Controversially joined Khondaker Moshtaque Ahmed's cabinet as Defence Advisor after Sheikh Mujib's murder in 15 August 1975. Formed Jatiya Janata Party (1977-1984) and stood unsuccessfully against Ziaur Rahman for presidentship in 1978. Sylhet's Osmani International Airport (Osmani Antorjatik Biman Bondor), state-run hospital Sylhet Osmani Medical College and Hospital (popularly referred to as Osmani Hospital), Sylhet (MAG Osmani) Stadium, and (Osmani) Shishu Udyan named after him. Born in Dayamir, Sylhet. Died as a bachelor, aged 66, on 16 February 1984 in St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, whilst receiving treatment for cancer. Buried next to mother in Shah Jalal Dargah, Sylhet with full military honours.
- Mohammad Abdur (M. A.) Rab (1919 - 1975) Bir Uttom. Assistant Commander-in-Chief of Liberation war and first Army Chief of Bangladesh. Founded the Muktijoddha Kalyan Trust and ran it successfully for years. Former MP. Chairman of the governing body of International Medical College. Born in village of Khagaura, Baniachang thana, Sylhet. Died a bachelor on 14 November 1975 at the Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka, after suffering from ailments including anemia. Buried in his village of Umednagar on the banks of Khowai River in Habiganj. http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=182371
- Abdul Karim (A. K.) Khondaker ()
- A. R. Chowdhury ()
- Ziaur Rahman (1936 - 1981) 7th President of Bangladesh. Founder of BNP. Bir Uttom (1972) awarded by Sheikh Mujib after independence. Popularly referred to as 'Shohid' (Martyred) Zia. Awarded Hilal-i-Jur'at (Crescent of Courage), second highest military award, by Pakistan government for bravery in Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Sector 2 (Chotrogram) & Sector 11 (Mymensingh-Tangail) and 'Z-Force' Commander during Swadhinata Juddho. Declarer of Bangladesh independence (Swadhinata Gushok) on 26 March 1971 on behalf of Sheikh Mujib. Released from house arrest by Colonel Abu Taher during Sipahi-Janata Biplob of 7 November 1975. Inserted 'Bismillah' into Constitution of Bangladesh and controversially legalised Indemnity Act protecting killers of Sheikh Mujib and 4 Awami League leaders. Wife Khaleda Zia, first female PM of Bangladesh, been leading the BNP since his death. Assassinated on 30 May 1981 in Chittagong Circuit House allegedly by Major General Abul Manzoor, Bir Uttom and Sector 8 (Jessore) Commander. Buried next to Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban in Chondrima Udyan (aka Zia Udyan).
- Rafiqul Islam ()
- Khaled Mosharraf ()
- A. T. M. Haider ()
- Kazi Mohammad (K. M.) Shafiullah ()
- A. N. M. Nuruzzaman ()
- Chitta Rajan (C. R.) Dutta (Born ) Bir Uttom. Sector 5 (Sylhet) Commander during 1971 Mukhtijuddho. Formed the Sector Commanders Forum with other prominent members from Bangladesh Liberation War. A leader of Bangladesh Hindu-Buddhist-Christian Unity Council (BHBCUC).
- Mir Shawkat Ali ()
- Khademul Bashar () Captain
- Nazrul Huq ()
- Qazi Nuruzzaman ()
- Abu Osman Chowdhury ()
- M. A. Manzoor ()
- M. A. Jalil ()
- Joynal Abedin ()
- Abu Taher ()
- M. Hamidullah Khan ()
- Bangladesh Navy ('Nu-bahini') (Born July 1971) Formed during 1971 Muktijudhho. Initially, there were 2 ships and 45 navy personnel. On 9 November 1971, the first naval fleet consisting of six small patrol vessels were inaugurated. Headquarters at Banani, Dhaka, and consist of 4 branches: Operations, Personnel, Material, and Logistics. Each branch headed by officers titled Principal Staff Officer (PSO) and known as Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (ACNS). Under each PSO there are various Directorates headed by Directors with the rank of Captain. Under each Director there are Deputy Directors (DD) and Staff Officers (SO). Official website is www.bangladeshnavy.org.
I found the [Bengali] formation commanders had a good knowledge of the local topography and a fair idea of the deployment of Pakistani forces and their fighting potential. They had a reasonable measure of the tasks in hand and were confident of success, provided some latitude was allowed to them in planning and the conduct of battle. In one voice, they disdained "spoonfeeding" from the top.